logo Taiwan Earthquake made some only minor effect on PIEHositng Network Access.

Glossary :

200 - Is a browser code that signals that the website page was opened successfully.

301 - Is a browser code that signals a directory was requested instead of a file. The server substituted an index.htm file

302 - Is a browser code that signals a temporary redirection to another page/location.

403 - Is a browser code that means the browser understands what to do, but can't do it for some reason.

404 - Is a browser code that means the requested web address cannot be found.

500 - Is a browser code that means there was an error in displaying a webpage.

506 - Is a browser code that signals ASP is not enabled for the domain name.

507 - Is a browser code that means there is likely an error with the coding of a ASP page.

.net - Is a windows based platform for designing web pages. This is only supported on windows servers.

:blackhole: - Emails addressed to non-existing accounts will automatically be deleted.

:fail: - Emails addressed to non-existing accounts will automatically bounced back as undeliverable.

400 Bad Request - The Apache Web server allows site managers to override the standard error page that is served for specific errors by number. This error, 400 bad request, means that a request for a URL has been made but the server is not configured or capable of responding to it. This might be the case for URLs that are handed-off to a servlet engine where no default document or servlet is configured, or the HTTP request method is not implemented.

401 Unauthorized -Your IP address or the username/password you entered were not correct. Your request was denied as you have no permission to access the data.

402 PaymentRequired - The data is not accessible at the time. The owner of the space has not yet payed their service provider.

405 Method Not Allowed - Your IP address or the username/password you entered were not correct. Your request was denied as you have no permission to access the data.
OR The server was unable to serve the data that was requested.

406 Not Acceptable - The document that has been requested either no longer exists, or has never existed on the server.

407 Proxy Authentication Required - The browser has not been authenticated on the required proxy server to access the data. This error is probably most commonly returned by content filters/parental controls.

408 Request Timeout - The browser has not been authenticated on the required proxy server to access the data. This error is probably most commonly returned by content filters/parental controls.

409 Conflict - Too many requests for the same file at one time.
There is a conflict with an established software rule. (ie: you are trying to copy over a file with an older version, or you do not have permissions to delete a file)
This could be caused by a DNS issue.

410 Gone - This is like a 404 error in that the document requested is not on the server, however this differs in that the server 'knows' that the file used to be there and 'believes' that the file may be back, so it returns 410 rather 404.

411- Length Required: Your Web server thinks that the HTTP data stream sent by the client (e.g. your Web browser or our CheckUpDown robot) should include a 'Content-Length' specification. This is typically used only for HTTP methods that result in the placement of data on the Web server, not the retrieval of data from it.

412- Precondition Failed: Your Web server thinks that the HTTP data stream sent by the client (e.g. your Web browser or our CheckUpDown robot) included a 'Precondition' specification which the server detected was not met.

413- Request Entity Too Large: Your Web server thinks that the HTTP data stream sent by the client (e.g. your Web browser or our CheckUpDown robot) was simply too large i.e. too many bytes. What constitutes 'too many bytes' depends partly upon the operation being attempted. For example a request to upload a very large file (via the HTTP PUT method) may encounter a ceiling on upload file size set by the Web server.

414- Request- URI Too Long: Your Web server thinks that the HTTP data stream sent by the client (e.g. your Web browser or our CheckUpDown robot) contains a URL that is simply too large i.e. too many bytes.

Typically Web servers set fairly generous limits on length for genuine URLs e.g. up to 2048 or 4096 characters. If your URL is particularly long, you can usually try shorter variations to see roughly where the limit is. If your long URL is indeed valid, then the Web server may need to be reconfigured to allow your URLs through. Understand that Web servers have to set some reasonable limit here, because they have to deal with badly programmed clients trying to give them huge garbage URLs.

415- Unsupported Media Type: Your Web server thinks that the HTTP data stream sent by the client (e.g. your Web browser or our CheckUpDown robot) identifies a URL resource whose actual media type 1) does not

agree with the media type specified on the request or 2) is incompatible with the current data for the resource or 3) is incompatible with the HTTP method specified on the request.Detecting exactly what is causing this problem can be difficult, because there a number of possible reasons. Often the request involves transfer of data from the client to the Web server (e.g. a file upload via the PUT method), in which case you need to confirm with your ISP which media types are acceptable for upload.

501- Not implemented: Your Web server does not understand or does not support the HTTP method it finds in the HTTP data stream sent to it by the client (e.g. a Web browser or our CheckUpDown robot).

502- Bad Gateway: A server (not necessarily a Web server) is acting as a gateway or proxy to fulfill the request by the client (e.g. your Web browser or our CheckUpDown robot) to access the requested URL. This server received an invalid response from an upstream server it accessed to fulfill the request.This usually does not mean that the upstream server is down (no response to the gateway/proxy), but rather that the upstream server and the gateway/proxy do not agree on the protocol for exchanging data. Given that Internet protocols are quite clear, it often means that one or both machines have been incorrectly or incompletely programmed.

503- Service Unavailable: Your Web server is currently unable to handle the HTTP request due to a temporary overloading or maintenance of the server. The implication is that this is a temporary condition which will be alleviated after some delay. Some servers in this state may also simply refuse the socket connection, in which case a different error may be generated because the socket creation timed out.

504- Gateway Timeout: A server (not necessarily a Web server) is acting as a gateway or proxy to fulfil the request by the client (e.g. your Web browser or our CheckUpDown robot) to access the requested URL. This server did not receive a timely response from an upstream server it accessed to deal with your HTTP request.This usually means that the upstream server is down (no response to the gateway/proxy rather than that the upstream server and the gateway/proxy do not agree on the protocol for exchanging data.

505- HTTP Version Not Supported: Your Web server does not support, or refuses to support, the HTTP protocol version specified by the client

(e.g. your Web browser or our CheckUpDown robot) in the HTTP request data stream sent to the server.The HTTP protocol has various versions identified as major.minor e.g. version 0.9, 1.0 or 1.1. Your server is indicating that it is unable or unwilling to complete the request using the major version provided by the client - other than with this error message.Assuming that your request identifies a valid major.minor version number (the request is not fundamentally corrupt), then this error should mostly only occur if you are trying to use version 1.0 or 1.1, but your

Web server only supports the older 0.9 version.

Access - A database program by Microsoft that requires a Windows server.

Access host - A feature in cPanel that allows you to specify which IP addresses are allowed to remotely access a MySQL database.

Accessibility - The measure of how accessible a website is. An accessible website provides features that allow the site to be used more easily by users with disabilities.

Activex - A technology developed by Microsoft that allows web applications to be created within the browser. It is only available in

Internet Explorer and is known for having security issues. Add on domain - An add on domain allows you to run a separate site complete with email capability from your main account. Add on domains will be redirected to a subdirectory of your primary domain's root directory. An add on domain will appear to visitors as a totally separate site with its own domain.

Affiliate - A website that promotes another company's goods and services in return for payment. An affiliate differs from a traditional advertiser because affiliates must deliver sales or leads in order to get paid.

Alias - The same thing as a cname.

Analog - A popular web stats analysis program. It can be downloaded from here: http://www.analog.cx/

Anonymous domain - A service offered by domain registrars which allows registration of a domain without making the personal details of the owner publicly available.

Anonymous FTP - Allows guests to upload files to the account. Files are upload to a separate directory so that the website files can not be altered by guests. Requires dedicated IP address.

Apache - The software that is used on the servers to serve webpages.

Apache Handlers - This is how Apache knows how to handle a particular file, such as handling a CGI script. You can create your own handler, such as forcing the PHP processor to parse all HTML files. Although this is not recommended, it is possible.

Applet - A small application, such as a utility program or limited-function spreadsheet or word processor. Java programs that are run from the browser are always known as applets.

ASCII - (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Pronounced "ask-ee," it is the built-in binary code for representing characters in all computers except IBM mainframes, which use the EBCDIC coding system. ASCII was originally developed for communications and uses only seven bits per character, providing 128 combinations that include upper and lower case alphabetic letters, the numeric digits and special symbols such as the $ and %. The first 32 characters are set aside for communications and printer control

ASP - Active Server Pages. A web server technology based on Microsoft's ASP, we use Sun One ASP.

ASP Error Codes -(http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;294271&Product=iis60)

Attachment - A file that is attached to an email message.

Authentication - The verification of a user that is logging into a server, such as logging into the cPanel, or enabling SMTP authentication in a mail client. Authentication requires a username and password.

Auto Responders - A mail utility that automatically sends a reply to an e-mail message. Auto responders are used to send back boilerplate information on a topic without having the requester do anything more than e-mail a particular address. They are also used to send a confirmation that the message has been received.

Backbone - The major network connections that make up the internet.

Backup - A saved copy of the files for your website. It can be used to restore your site if anything happens to the original files.

Bandwidth - A measure of the amount of data that can be transferred over a network in a specific amount of time.

Banner ad - An image containing an advertisement which is displayed on a website.

BBS - A bulletin board system, similar to a forum.

Binary mode - A method of transferring binary files with an FTP client.

blog - Shortened form of 'weblog'. A website containing a series of dated entries, generally on a specific topic, which are written by an individual.

Body - The section of an HTML document that contains the content.

Bounce - An email message that is returned to the sender because it was undeliverable.

Broadband - High-speed internet access.

cloaking - Cloaking is showing different versions of your content to different visitors. It is most often used to show different content to search engines spiders than you show to your human visitors.

Comment - A comment is a component of a programming language that allows the programmer to tell the parser to ignore anything within the comment. The method for indicating a comment varies from language to language.

FTP - File Transfer Protocol. A method for sending files from one computer to another on networks and the Internet. Needed to upload/download files to and from your host

GD - GD Library, GD is an open source code library for the dynamic creation of images GD can create PNG , JPEG and GIF images, and other formats. GD can be used to generate charts, graphics, and thumbnails.

GIF - graphic interchange file, a graphics format that can be displayed in web browsers. They display in 256 colors and have built-in compression. GIF files are also used for animated web graphics.

Gigabyte - computer memory or disk space which consists of about one thousand million bytes, one thousand megabytes. The actual value is 1,073,741,824 bytes 1,024 megabytes.

GoLive - A WYSIWYG HTML editor from Adobe

Guestbook - A guestbook is a script on a web page with a form that allows visitors of a website to sign and leave comments. It can be found in multiple web based programming languages, Perl, PHP, etc.

Hack - is a slang term, and can have multiple meanings. The popular meanings include To alter a computer program or gain unauthorized entry into a program, computer, or computer system.

Head - A tiny electromagnetic coil and metal pole used to create and read back the magnetic patterns on the disk, also known as the read/write head.

<head> - an HTML tag that defines the head of the document, it contains the <title> tag (document title), and can contain scripts, and other page attributes.

Hits - represent the total number of requests made to the server during a given time period

Home page - The central document on a web site. The document usually directs visitors to the information that can be found within the site. Also can be a personal page for a person, which contains information about him or her.

JSP - Java Server Pages. A Java-based scripting language that is used to create dynamic websites.

jstl - JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library. A library of code that can be used for common web application tasks.

Keyword - The word or phrase that is used in a search engine to find websites related to a particular topic.

Kilobyte - A unit used for computer storage that is equal to 1024 bytes.

Kmeleon - A fast, Gecko-based browser.

Linux - An open source operating system that is often used for web servers.

Load balancing - Distribution of tasks between multiple servers in order to more effectively handle resource-intensive websites.

log4j - A logging package for Java that eliminates the need for inserting logging statements directly into the code.

Lynx - A text-based browser.

Mailing list - A discussion group, generally about a specific topic, where readers post and read messages via email.

Mambo - An open source content management system. The website for Mambo can be found here: http://www.mamboserver.com/

marquee - An HTML tag, which is not part of the HTML specification, that creates scrolling text.

MD5 - A hashing algorithm that is used to convert a message into a unique string of digits.

Media streaming - A method of transmitting media, such as audio and video clips, across the internet without requiring the entire file to download before the file can be played. The file is played as it arrives on the user's computer.

Megabyte - A unit of computer storage equal to 1024 kilobytes or 1,048,576 bytes.

Merchant account - A service provided by a financial institution that allows a website to process credit card orders.

Message board - An application for the web that allows users to post and read messages about a particular topic.

Meta tag - An HTML tag placed in the head section of an HTML document that allows the author to give information about the document. The most common uses are specifying a description and keywords for a document.

MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.

Mime types - Identifies the format of a file.

Mirror - An exact duplicate of a website. A mirror is commonly used to make file downloads more reliable by giving multiple locations from which users can download.

Mod rewrite - An Apache module that allows URLs to be rewritten according to rules specified in a .htaccess file. It is most commonly used to rewrite dynamic URLs to make them more search engine friendly.

Mod(ification) - A plugin for a script, such as Mambo or phpBB, that extends the functionality of that script.

Mozilla - The organization that produces the Mozilla suite of applications as well as Firefox (a browser) and Thunderbird (an email client).

MX entry or MX record - A DNS entry that specifies which mail server handles the mail for a domain.

MySQL - A free, open source database that is commonly used to run dynamic websites.

Name Server - A computer (server) that has both the software and the data (zone files) needed to resolve domain names to Internet Protocol (IP) numbers. Domain names must be programmed into a minimum of two name servers hosted on separate networks.

Netscape - A widely known company that developed the Netscape Navigater web browser, for viewing web pages.

ODBC - Short for Open DataBase Connectivity. ODBC is a common framework for accessing and altering the contents of databases.

OpenPGP Keys - OpenPGP is a tool for secure online communication. It’s a non-proprietary protocol used to encrypt email using public key cryptography. OpenPGP is based on PGP. cPanel utilizes GnuPG (Gnu Privacy Guard) for its public-key cryptography.

Open source - refers to a program in which the source code is available to the general public for use and/or modification from its original design free of charge.

Opera - Another popular web browser. http://www.opera.com/

Ownership - The state of being an owner. In web-hosting terms, this usually refers to the permissions set for directories and files for your website.

Packet - In networking, a packet is a unit of information transmitted as a discrete entity from one node on the network to another. More specifically, in packet-switching networks, a packet is a transmission unit of a fixed maximum length that contains a header, a set of data, and error control information.

Page Rank™ - Google's patent pending technology that rates the "importance" of a given web page. Page Rank is used by Google (among other things) to determine a page's rank on Google's query results page.

Parked domain - A parked domain is a domain that points to the primary domain for your account. For example, if your primary domain is

example.com, you can point example.net to the same content by parking it. Anyone who visits your site using example.net will see the same content as example.com. However, the browser's address bar will show example.net as the visitor navigates your site.

Parse - To break down a string of information such as a command or file into its constituent parts. The act of separating data into more easily understood chunks.

Password protect - a means of controlling access to web pages/sites.

PEAR - Stands for PHP Extension and Application Repository. PEAR is a framework and distribution system for reusable PHP components. More information can be found here:


PERL - Short for Practical Extraction and Report Language, Perl is a programming language developed by Larry Wall, especially designed for processing text. More information can be found here: http://dict.die.net/perl/

Permissions - a set of permissions associated with every file and directory that determine who can read it, write to it, or execute it. Only the owner of the file (or the super-user) can change these permissions.

Photo gallery - refers to a collection of photos displayed on a web site.

referrer - A referrer is the URL of the page from which a user accesses another page. For example, if you have two pages,example.com/page1.html and example.com/page2.html, and someone accesses example.com/page2.html from a link on example.com/page1.html, the referrer would be


The referrer URL is sent by most browsers as part of a request for apage. If a user makes a direct request for a page (for example, typing
example.com/page2.html into the address bar), there will be no referrer information sent.

Registrar - A registrar is a company that handles domain name registrations. They sell domains and allow their customers to manage domains they have purchased.

Router - A network device that forwards packets from one network to another. Based on internal routing tables, routers read each incoming packet and decide how to forward it. To which interface on the router outgoing packets are sent may be determined by any combination of source and destination address as well as current traffic conditions (load, line costs, bad lines, etc.).

RSS -(Really Simple Syndication) A syndication format that was developed by Netscape in 1999 and became very popular for aggregating updates to blogs and the latest news from Web sites. RSS has also stood for "Rich Site Summary" and "RDF Site Summary."

Safari - The default Web browser for the Max OS X operating system. It is noted for its fast download speed and many built-in features including the Google search bar and popup blocker

Scalability - How much a system can be expanded.

Screen reader - Software for the visually impaired that reads the contents of a computer screen, converting the text to speech. Screen readers are designed for specific operating systems and generally work with most applications.

Script - A program written in a general-purpose programming language. Such languages are typically interpreted and less comprehensive than full-blown compiled languages.

Search engine - Software that searches for data based on some criteria. Although search engines have been around for decades, they were brought to the forefront after the Web exploded onto the scene. Every Web search engine site uses a search engine that it has either developed itself or has purchased from a third party. Search engines can differ dramatically in the way they find and index the material on the Web, and the way they search the indexes from the user's query.

Security - The protection of data, networks and computing power. The protection of data (information security) is the most important. The protection of networks is important to prevent loss of server resources as well as to protect the network from being used for illegal purposes. The protection of computing power is relevant only to expensive machines such as large supercomputers.

Sendmail - An SMTP-based message transfer agent ( MTA ) that runs under Unix. Developed at the University of California at Berkeley by Eric Allman in 1981, sendmail stores and forwards more mail than any other MTA on the Internet. In 1998, Allman commercialized the product by forming Sendmail, Inc. (www.sendmail.com), which offers a GUI interface for modifying the configuration file instead of dealing directly with more than a thousand lines of text. Sendmail, Inc. also offers a Windows NT/2000 version that includes the POP mail server and message store. Examples of mail clients developed for sendmail in the Unix world are elm, pine, mush and mailx.

SEO (search engine optimization) - Designing a Web site so that search engines easily find the pages and index them. The goal is to have your page be in the top 10 results of a search. Optimization includes the choice of words used in the text paragraphs and the placement of those words on the page, both visible and hidden inside meta tags. Search engines use different criteria for indexing, and those criteria may change. Thus, it becomes increasingly difficult to satisfy every one equally. Yahoo! and other directory-oriented search sites manually index a Web site, which may provide the best results for the user.

Servers - A computer system in a network that is shared by multiple users. Servers come in all sizes from x86-based PCs to IBM mainframes. A server may have a keyboard, monitor and mouse directly attached, or one keyboard, monitor and mouse may connect to any number of servers via a KVM switch. Servers may be also be accessed only through a network connection as well.

Servlets - A Java application that allows developers to add dynamic content to their websites.

Session - A method for maintaining state throughout a website. It is most often used to keep users logged in so that they can access features on a site.

Shared hosting - A hosting solution where multiple user's sites are hosted on the same server.

Shockwave - A browser plugin created by Macromedia that allows playback of multimedia files.

Shopping cart - Software on a website that allows customers to save items they wish to purchase and checkout when they have finished shopping.

SMF - Simple Machines Forum.

SMS - Short Message Service. A service that permits the exchange of text messages via mobile phones.

SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. The primary protocol used for sending email.

SOA Update - Start of Authority update.

SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol. A protocol based on XML that is frequently used in web services.

Spam – Unsolicited bulk email. Unsolicited means that the Recipient has not granted verifiable permission for the message to be sent. Bulk messages are messages that are sent massively and contain identical content.

SpamAssassin – An open source spam filter. SpamAssassin identifies spam based on the score from multiple types of checks. Spam messages are stored in a folder (usually called spam folder).

Spider – A program that surfs webpages to get the links and pass the caught links to another program to be processed. It is usually used by search engines.

Spoofing – Email address spoofing is an activity of illegally using other’s legitimate email address to send messages.

Spyware – A program that is installed without user’s consent and running secretly on computer to collect user’s information and pass it to other parties. Spyware is installed as a result clicking on unreliable popup windows or drive-by download (automatic download without user’s consent and knowledge).

Squirrel mail – One of the webmail clients supported by Lunarpages.

Squirrel Mail is written in PHP4 and it includes built-in pure PHP support for the IMAP and SMTP protocols. All pages render in pure HTML 4.0 (with no JavaScript required) for maximum compatibility across browsers.

SSI – Server Side Includes are directives that are placed in HTML pages, and evaluated on the server while the pages are being served. They let you add dynamically generated content to an existing HTML page, without having to serve the entire page via a CGI program, or other dynamic technology. SSI page can be identified by .shtml file extension.

SSL – Secure Sockets Layer is a protocol developed by Netscape for transmitting private documents via the Internet.

Storage – Space in hard disk to store data such as webpages, databases and configuration files. Each user account is assigned a storage quota on the server.

Streaming – To transmit data over a network. Video and Audio streaming mean to upload, download or play Video and Audio file.

Strut – Strut is another project from The Apache Software Foundation. Struts uses a special Servlet as a switchboard to route requests from Web browsers to the appropriate ServerPage. This makes Web applications much easier to design, create, and maintain.

Sub Domain – Sub domain is a domain that is part of a larger domain. In domain name test.domain.com, “test” is the sub domain.

suphp - suphp is a tool for executing PHP scripts with the permissions of their owners. So suphp is more secure. suphp does not allow permission 666 and 777.

SVG – SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) is a language that delivers two-dimensional graphics in XML to the web. It provides dynamic and reusable vector graphic, text, and images.

Swish – A program that is used to create Flash animations without using Macromedia's Flash product.

Symbolic Links – Shortcuts of folders or files. Symbolic Links enable the same file to be accessed from different locations. www folder in your account is a symbolic link of public_html folder. Deleting a file in www will delete the same file in public_html.

Table - A set of data elements that has a horizontal dimension (rows) and a vertical dimension (columns) in a relational database system. A table has a specified number of columns but can have any number of rows. A table is often called a relation. Rows stored in a table are structurally equivalent to records from flat files in that they must not contain repeating fields. In webpage’s it can be as simple as a spreadsheet of rows and columns, or as complex as a set of data within a database.

Tape backup - a recording system using electronic tape to store a copy of data for preservation purposes. If data should need to be restored, then the data can be found on the tape backup. Lunarpages backup data every day on every server.

tcp - (Transmission Control Protocol) one of the main protocols in TCP /IP networks. Whereas the IP protocol deals only with packets, TCP enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange streams of data. TCP guarantees delivery of data and also guarantees that packets will be delivered in the same order in which they were sent.

Telnet - A terminal emulation program for TCP /IP networks such as the Internet. The Telnet program runs on your computer and connects your PC to a server on the network. You can then enter commands through the Telnet program and they will be executed as if you were entering them directly on the server console. This enables you to control the server and communicate with other servers on the network. To start a Telnet session, you must log in to a server by entering a valid username and password. Telnet is a common way to remotely control Web servers.

Template - A set of pre-designed formats for text and graphics on which new pages and webs can be based. After a page or web is created using a template, you can customize the page or web.

Temporary URL - Lunarpages will create a temporary url for a customer if they request it while their own domain name is being registered and propagated. This is typically done when advanced web hosting functions such as php, jsp, asp, etc are needed immediately or for a testing purpose. The temp url is made into the form of subdomain.lunarpages.net where the customer can choose their subdomain name.

Thunderbird - A remote email client made by Mozilla.

Title - The title bar - the very top of the browser - displays the title of the page. The title of a web page is also displayed in search engine result pages; in minimized window titles at the bottom of the screen; and in lists of bookmarks or favorites.

tracert - a TCP /IP utility which allows the user to determine the route packets take to reach a particular host. Trace route works by increasing the "time to live" value of each successive packet sent. The first packet has a TTL value of one, the second two, and so on. When a packet passes through a host, the host decrements the TTL value by one and forwards the packet to the next host. When a packet with a TTL of one reaches a host, the host discards the packet and sends an ICMP time exceeded. Customers are sometimes asked to perform this function to determine if there is a break in communications between themselves and a remote server such as Lunarpages' servers.

Traffic - the amount of activity over a communication system during a given period of time; "heavy traffic overloaded the trunk lines"; "traffic on the internet is lightest during the night"

Trojan (Trojan horse) - An apparently useful and innocent program containing additional hidden code which allows the unauthorized collection, exploitation, falsification, or destruction of data. Most commonly associated with viruses.

Upload - Transferring a file or files from the user's computer to a remote computer.

Uptime - strangely enough, the opposite of downtime. It is defined as being the time that an item of equipment is in service and operating.

URI - Uniform Resource Identifier - URIs have been known by many names: WWW addresses, Universal Document Identifiers, Universal Resource Identifiers, and finally the combination of Uniform Resource Locators (URL) and Names (URN). As far as HTTP is concerned, Uniform Resource Identifiers are simply formatted strings that identify - via name, location, or any other characteristic - a resource.

URL - Uniform Resource Locator; an address that specifies the location of a file on the Internet (eg, http://www.fsu.edu/library).
Usability - Usability is the measure of how easy it is to use a website. A site would be considered usable if it meets certain criteria, which can include: having logical navigation, adherence to established conventions for the web, and providing an easy to use help section. Many other factors can come into play.

validation/validator - An automated tool to check that coding used to create web pages is valid. It is important that coding is valid as this can impact on the accessibility of pages. Assistive technology used by disabled users such as screen readers may have problems if coding is invalid. Search engines may also have difficulty indexing pages. Most web editing packages include HTML validators or checkers, alongside spell checkers. Online validators are also available, eg W3C HTML validator and Style Sheet Validator.

Virtual host - A computer which can be forced to respond to multiple IP addresses and provide various services (typically different Web services) on each. Each of these IP addresess (which usually each have their own hostname) operate as if they were separate hosts on separate machines, although they are really all the same host. Therefore, they are called "virtual" hosts. An example of virtual hosting is when an Internet Service Provider "hosts" World-Wide Web and other services for several customers on the same computer but gives the appearence that each of these services use separate servers.

Virus - A virus is a type of program that can replicate itself by making (possibly modified) copies of itself. The main criterion for classifying a piece of executable code as a virus is that it spreads itself by means of 'hosts'. A virus can only spread from one computer to another when its host is taken to the uninfected computer, for instance by a user sending it over a network or carrying it on a removable disk. Additionally, viruses can spread to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer. Viruses are sometimes confused with worms. A worm, however, can spread itself to other computers without needing to be transferred as part of a host. Many personal computers are now connected to the Internet and to local-area networks, facilitating their spread. Today's viruses may also take advantage of network services such as the World Wide Web, e-mail, and file sharing systems to spread, blurring the line between viruses and worms.

Viruses can infect different types of hosts. The most common targets are executable files that contain application software or parts of the operating system. Viruses have also infected the executable boot sectors of floppy disks, script files of application programs, and documents that can contain macro scripts. Additionally, viruses can infect files in other ways than simply inserting a copy of their code into the code of the host program. For example, a virus can overwrite its host with the virus code, or it can use a trick to ensure that the virus program is executed when the user wants to execute the (unmodified) host program. Viruses have existed for many different operating systems, including MS-DOS, AmigaOS, and Mac OS; today, the majority of viruses run on Microsoft Windows.A legitimate application program that can copy itself as a side-effect of its normal function (e.g. backup software) is not considered a virus. Some programs that were apparently intended as viruses cannot reliably self-replicate, because the infection routine contain bugs. For example, a buggy virus can insert copies of itself into host programs, but these copies never get executed and are thus unable to spread the virus. Self-replicating programs that have very limited spreading capabilities because of bugs should not be considered legitimate viruses.

Visits - a complete session of accesses to a certain web server conducted by one person. A visit is concluded when the customer hasn't viewed any page for a certain period of time (60 seconds in most cases).

VOIP - (Voice over Internet Protocol) The technology used to transmit voice conversations over a data network using the Internet Protocol. Such data network may be the Internet or a corporate Intranet.

VPN - (virtual private network) A private network constructed across a public network such as the Internet. A VPN can be made secure, even though it is using existing Internet connections to carry data communication. Security measures involve encrypting data before sending it across the Internet and decrypting the data at the other end. An additional level of security can be added by encrypting the originating and receiving network address.
W3C - The W3C (short for World Wide Web Consortium) is the body that defines standards for many web related languages and technologies. They oversee development of standards for languages such as HTML and CSS . Their site can be found here: http://www.w3.org/

WAI - (web accessibility initiative) Guidelines put in place to highlight and improve the difficulties experienced by many web users. The guidelines can be accessed at http://www.w3.org/TR/WAI-WEBCONTENT/

WAMP (Windows/Apache/MySQL/PHP) - WAMP is an acronym for the combination Microsoft Windows, Apache, MySQL and one or more of Perl, PHP and Python. It is modelled after the more well-known LAMP, referring to the all-open source/free software approach which uses Linux instead of Windows.

WAP - (Wireless Application Protocol) An open, global specification that empowers mobile users with wireless devices to easily access and interact with information and services instantly.

Web host - The server where your web site's html files, graphics, etc. reside. Lunarpages is a web hosting company. Our servers host customer's web sites and files.

Web Mail - email that can be accessed via a browser based email service.

Web services - Web services are simple, self contained applications which perform functions, from simple requests to complicated business processes. The "web services" model uses WSDL, UDDI and SOAP /XMLP. A WSDL description is retrieved from the UDDI directory. WSDL descriptions allow the software systems of one business to extend to use those of the other directly. The services are invoked over the World Wide Web using the SOAP /XMLP protocol. Each of the components are XML based. Where two agencies know about each other's web services they can link their SOAP /XMLP interfaces - provided all security concerns are managed appropriately. It is only where services are going to have unknown users that they need to be formally described by a language such as WSDL and entered into a directory such as UDDI.

web.xml - The web.xml file is used by the J2EE application server during deployment of a web module. It describes the web components used by that web module, environment variables, and security requirements. This information is stored as / WEB - INF /web.xml. For example, the default application's deployment descriptor might be stored as /usr/jrun/servers/default/delt-app/ WEB - INF /web.xml. You must add a web.xml deployment descriptor to any WAR file you want to deploy as a web application. You can then add your web module to a J2EE application, which has its own deployment descriptor (application.xml) in addition to the web module's web.xml.

Webalizer - Name of web stats program offered with most web hosting plans using the Cpanel user interface.

Webapps - structured forms that send pre-formatted instant messages to users or a process on a server. They are designed to interact with databases to collect, store, organize and disseminate information, creating powerful tools for use in consistent information management. webApps provide (a) support of IE compatible languages (JavaScript, Flash and ActiveX, etc.), (b) synchronized Intranet, Extranet and Internet web applications, (c) secure unified login and presence management across all system layers, and (d) compatible with most popular database engines (SQL, Access, Sybase, etc.)

WebDAV - is the abbreviation for Web-Distributing, Authoring and Versioning. It describes a technique by which the editing of webpages can be simplified. WebDAV consists of HTTP extensions which specify a standard for the exchange of data between web authoring tools and web servers. With WebDAV internet documents can be read and created as local data.

Web-inf - The directory containing the web-apps classes, jars and configuration files.

Web space - An amount of data storage space used to host websites and files on the Internet, usually measured in Megabytes (MB).

whois - Whois is a term referring to a domain name search or look-up feature for a database - typically for Top-Level Domain name registries. Information such as name availability can be found through a query or search using a whois protocol (standard). Most Top-Level Domain registries maintain their own whois database containing domain name contact information.

Windows Media - A media format developed by Microsoft for streaming and playing back media files.

WYSIWYG - (What You See Is What You Get) A graphical interface to a process which shows how the end-result will look as it is being produced, eg a WYSIWYG HTML editor generates HTML markup but displays the document as if viewed with a Web browser.

XFORMS - XForms is an XML format for the specification of user interfaces, specifically web forms. XForms was designed to be the next generation of HTML / XHTML forms, but is generic enough that it can also be used in a standalone manner to describe any user interface, and even perform simple and common data manipulation tasks.

XHTML - The next generation of HTML and is a hybrid between HTML and XML. XML was designed to describe data. HTML was designed to display data. XHTML is much stricter than HTML. Not all browers support XML so XHTML provides an intermediary soluton and can be interpreted by XML and HTML browsers. For further information see: http://www.w3c.org/MarkUp/

XML - Extensible Markup Language, a specification developed by the W3C. XML is a pared-down version of SGML, designed especially for Web documents. It allows designers to create their own customized tags, enabling the definition, transmission, validation, and interpretation of data between applications and between organizations.

XSLT - (eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations) A language used to transform XML documents into other documents. In Second Site, XSLT is used to transform XML documents into HTML tags. The XSLT standard is administered by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

Zip - To zip a file is to compress it into an archive so that it occupies less disk space.


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